Mimosaceae or Leguminosae (Fabaceae), subfamily Mimosoideae
Acacia, Catclaw acacia, Egyptian thorn, Mimosa, Prairie acacia, Wattle
The genus Acacia includes about 800 species, which are mostly tropical shrubs and trees. The genus is very similar to the genus Mimosa, with many species having been reassigned from one genus to the other, creating synonomous epithets.
NewCROP has Acacia information at:
Acacia in Australia: Ethnobotany and Potential Food Crop. Lister, P.R., P. Holford, T. Haigh, and D.A. Morrison. 1996. p. 228-236. In: J. Janick (ed.), Progress in New Crops. ASHS Press, Alexandria, VA.
The following in-depth articles on Acacia species are from from Handbook of Energy Crops. James A. Duke. 1984. (unpublished).
- Acacia albida—Apple-Ring Acacia, Ana Tree, Winter Thorn.
- Acacia auriculiformis—Darwin Black Wattle.
- Acacia cyclops - Rooikrans
- Acacia farnesiana , Syn.: Mimosa farnesiana - Cassie, Huisache.
- Acacia mangium - Mange, Forest Mangrove
- Acacia mearnsii, Syn.: Acacia mollissima, Syn.: Acacia decurrens, var. mollis Lindl. – Black Wattle, Acacia Negra, Acacia Noir, Schwarze Akazie, Gomboom
- Acacia nilotica, Syn.: Mimosa nilotica - “Motse.html”, Egyptian Mimosa, Thorn.
- Acacia saligna - Orange Wattle
- Acacia senegal, Syn.: Acacia verek - Gum Arabic, Senegal Gum, Sudan Gum Arabic, Kher, Kumta
- Acacia seyal - Shittim Wood, White Whistling wood
- Acacia tortilis, , Syn.: Acacia raddiana, , Syn.: Acacia spirocarpa, Syn.: Acacia heteracantha - Umbrella Thorn, Israeli Babool
And outside links to more Acacia info:
Hundreds of Acacia photographs from the Australian National Botanic Gardens Photograph Collection
Last updated: 12/8/110 by ch
Artemisia absinthium L.
NewCROP holds information from the following sources:
Herbs: An Indexed Bibliography. 1971-1980—J.E. Simon, A.F. Chadwick and L.E. Craker
The Herb Hunters Guide—Sievers, A.F. 1930.
Outside links to Wormwood info:
Illustration of Artemisia absinthium L. from Hermann A. Köhler’s 3-part tomes Medizinal Pflanzen (1887) plates.
Wormwood and absinthe FAQ’s.
Wormwood from the “Vaults of Erowid”
Last updated: 12/8/2010 Ben Alkire
Artemisia absinthium L.
|Figure 124.—Wormwood (Artemisia absinthium)|
Other common names.—Absinthium, absinth, madderwort, mingwort, old woman, warmot.
Habitat and range.—Wormwood, naturalized from Europe and mostly escaped from gardens in this country, is found in waste places and along roadsides from Newfoundland to New York and westward. It is cultivated in some localities, especially in Michigan and Indiana, for the production of the volatile oil* which it contains.
Description.—This shrubby, aromatic, much-branched plant grows from 2 to 4 feet in height. The growing shoots are silvery white with fine silky hairs; and the grayish-green leaves, which are from 2 to 5 inches long, are divided into small leaflets The flower clusters, appearing from July to October, consist of numerous small, insignificant, drooping, yellow heads. The plant has an aromatic odor and an exceedingly bitter taste.
Part used.—The leaves and tops, which should be collected when the plant is in flower.
*Sievers, A.F. Methods of extracting volatile oils from plant material and the production of such oils in the United States. U.S. Dept. Agr. Tech. Bul. 16, 36 p. illus. 1928.
Sievers, A.F. 1930. The Herb Hunters Guide. Misc. Publ. No. 77. USDA, Washington DC.
Last update Friday, April 3, 1998 by aw
Family: Asteraceae (Compositae), Artemisia absinthium L.
Modified from: Simon, J.E., A.F. Chadwick and L.E. Craker. 1984. Herbs: An Indexed Bibliography. 1971-1980. The Scientific Literature on Selected Herbs, and Aromatic and Medicinal Plants of the Temperate Zone. Archon Books, 770 pp., Hamden, CT.
Wormwood, Artemisia absinthium L., is an erect-growing perennial herb native to Europe and naturalized in northeastern North America. The plant is cultivated commercially in the central and northwestern United States. Also called common wormwood, absinthe, absinthium, and madderwort, the species is known for its aromatic leaves. Reaching a height of 1 to 1.5 meters, the multibranched, shrubby-looking plant has grayish-green leaves and yellow flowers that bloom from summer to autumn.
The reported life zone of wormwood is 5 to 211Cdeg;C with an annual precipitation of 0.3 to 2.7 meters and a soil pH of 4.8 to 8.2 (4.1-31). The plant can grow in both poor dry or deep rich soils.
Plantations of wormwood last from seven to ten years, peaking in production during the second or third year (14.1-8). The herb can be harvested twice a year, during the late spring and during full bloom (4.3-48). Plants for oil production are partially dried before distillation.
The extracted essential oil, ranging from 0.5 to 1% of the fresh weight of the plant material, appears to be strongly influenced by environmental conditions. Some volatile oil constituents include: thujone, phellandrene, thujyl alcohol, cadinene, and azulene (1.7-130, 14.1-10, 14.1-32). The bitter principle in wormwood comes from absinthin and anabsinthin (14.1 -10).
Wormwood has been used as a flavoring agent in alcoholic beverages, such as vermouth, bitters, and liqueurs. In the past, it was sometimes used in place of hops in the manufacture of beer. Until use of the product was curtailed in 1912, the essential oil was in great demand for the manufacture of the French liqueur absinthe (14.1-31). The plant is sometimes grown as an ornamental.
The dried leaves, flowering tops, and essential oil of wormwood have traditionally been used as an anthelmintic, antiseptic, antispasmodic, carminative, sedative, stimulant, stomachic, and tonic (11.1-136). Wormwood has also been used to improve blood circulation, as a cardiac stimulant, as a pain reliever for women during labor, and as an agent against tumors and cancers (13.1-101, 14.1-13). Folk remedies call for the employment of wormwood against colds, rheumatism, fevers, jaundice, diabetes, and arthritis. Regular use of wormwood can become addicting. The plant contains glycoside, known to be poisonous, and the volatile oil is a central nervous system depressant. Overuse of wormwood can initiate nervousness, stupor, convulsions, and death (11.1-96, 11.1-136). Wormwood is known to be allergonic and can cause contact dermatitis. The plant is recognized as a moth and insect repellent.
Artemisia cina, levant wormseed, and Artemisia maritime contain santonin, an effective compound against round worms. Artemisia pontica L., an erect, gray perennial that reaches a height of 1 meter, is native to southeastern Europe and naturalized in eastern parts of North America. This plant has been used in the manufacture of vermouth and as a medicinal plant against colds and as a bitter stomachic. Artemisia annua L., sweet wormwood, is a native of eastern Europe that has sweet aromatic leaves and reaches a height of 2 to 3 meters. The plant is grown as an ornamental but the essential is reported to have strong antifungal and antibacterial activity (4.3-48), and artemisinin, the nonvolatile sesquiterpenelactone, has activity against malaria.
For further information, see Artemiaia annua link to Artemisia annua in New Crops.
[Note: References listed above in parentheses can be found in full in the original reference].
Last modified 6-Dec-1997
Balsam Fir, Balm of Gilead Tree, Canada Balsam
Abies balsamea (L.) Mill.
Balsam Fir, Balm of Gilead Tree, Canada Balsam
Source: James A. Duke. 1983. Handbook of Energy Crops. unpublished.
- Folk Medicine
- Yields and Economics
- Biotic Factors
The balsam or pitch, in extreme emergency, forms a highly concentrated, though disagreeable, food.” (Fernald, Kinsey, and Rollins, 1958). Bark of conifers, mostly, was so important in the diet of some tribes that at least one tribe, the Adirondacks, owe their name to the Mohawk term for “tree eaters.” Erika Gaertner devotes a four-page article to the making of breadstuff from the bark of balsam fir. In contrast to pine bark, the fir bark is a delight to chew in winter or early spring, slightly mucilaginous and sweetish, better raw than cooked (Gaertner, 1970). Inner bark that does not show any discoloration can be used for breadstuff and it takes about an hour to peel enough for one loaf. Leaves average 0.65% essential oil, ranging to 1.4% or higher. Trunks also yield oil of “Canada balsam” or turpentine, used as a permanent mounting medium in microscopy and as a cement for glassware. Canada turpentine yields 15–25% volatile oil, the resin being used for caulking and incense (Erichsen-Brown, 1979). Often used for Christmas trees. Abies species are commercially valuable for timber even though their wood is relatively soft, weak, and perishable. Balsam fir is used in the US for timber and plywood, and is the mainstay of the pulp wood industry in the northeast.
According to Hartwell (1967–1971), the buds, resin, and/or sap are used in folk remedies for cancers, corns, and warts. Reported to be anodyne, antiseptic, diaphoretic, diuretic, masticatory, and vulnerary, balsam fir is a folk remedy for bronchitis, burns, cancer, catarrh, cold, consumption, cough, dysentery, earache, gleet, gonorrhea, heart ailments, leucorrhea, paralysis, rheumatism, scurvy, sores, ulcers, urogenital ailments, warts, and wounds (Duke and Wain, 1981; Erichsen-Brown, 1979). Chippewa used the gum as an analgetic, the root decoction as an antirheumatic. Kwakiutl used the gum as a laxative and held the root in the mouth to cure sores there. Menominee used the gum for colds, cuts, lungs, and sores, the inner bark for chest pains, colds, and skin. Montagnai applied the gum for chest or heart pain. Ojibwa use the gum for colds, sores, sore eyes, and venereal diseases; the leaves as stimulant; Penobscot used the gum for cuts and sores; Pillagers used the needles in sweat baths and fumitories. Potawatomi used the gum for colds and sores, the bark infusion for consumption and other ailments. Caughnawaga used the gum as a cataplasm for cancer (Duke, 1983c).
Reducing sugars are said to account for 47% of the DM of balsam fir bark. The leaf oil contains 17.6% bornyl acetate and probably 1-a-pinene, Canada balsam contains ca 20% 1-b-phellandrene and smaller quantities of a- and b-pinene bornyl acetate, and the alcohols androl and bupleurol (Guenther, 1948-1952). Oils are also reported to contain juvabione and dehydrojuvabione (List and Horhammer, 1969–1979). The term Canada Balsam is a misnomer because balsams are supposed to contain benzoic and cinnamic acids, both absent from the Canada oleoresin. “Turpentine” is also a misnomer, implying that the oleoresin is entirely steam volatile. Actually it contains 70–80% resin, only 16-20% voaltile oil (Anderson, 1955). One analysis of the essential oils reports 14.6% bornyl acetate, 36.1% b-pinene, 11.1% 3-carene, 11.1% limonene, 6.8% camphene, and 8.4% a-pinene (Erichsen-Brown, 1979).
Canada balsam is reported to produce dermatitis when applied as perfume. The foliage has also induced contact dermatitis.
Tree to 20 m tall; trunk 3–5 dm in diameter. Bark brown, broken into scaly plates with resin-filled pockets. Twigs pale green and pubescent when young, becoming gray, reddish, or purplish. Leaves dark green, linear, sessile, spiral in origin, but twisted at base to form two ranks; leaves persisting many years; leaf-scars circular. Lower leaves to 3 cm long, those on coniferous branches much shorter. Winter buds globose, 3–6 mm in diameter, with orange-green scales, resinous. Mature cones nearly cylindrical, 3–8.5 cm long by 2–3 cm thick, dark purple when growing. Bracts ovate, the distinct awn protruding beyond the scale below it. Seeds ovoid or oblong, acute at base, with thin wing and resinous vesicles, maturing in one summer. Germination phanerocotylar (Brown and Brown, 1972).
Reported from the North American Center of Diversity, balsam fir, or cvs thereof, is reported to tolerate frost and slope. (2n = 24)
Labrador and Newfoundland south to New York and Pennsylvania, west to central-Wisconsin and Minnesota, north and west to Alberta; generally south of 55°N latitude, except in Alberta and Saskatchewan (Ag. Handbook 450, 1974).
Estimated to range from Cool Temperate Moist to Wet through Boreal Moist to Wet Forest Life Zones, balsam fir is estimated to tolerate annual precipitation of 6 to 15 dm, annual temperature of 5 to 12°C, and pH of 4.5 to 7.5. Female strobili may be wholly or partially aborted up to 6 to 8 weeks after bud burst by late spring frosts. Pollen dispersal can be reduced by adverse weather (Ag. Handbook No. 450)
Flowering in May, fruiting August-September; seeds are dispersed in late September. Extensive data on seed vitality etc. are reported in Agriculture Handbook No. 450. Seeds should be moist stratified 14–28 days at 1–5°C. Seed may be sown in autumn without stratification, with target seedling densities in the nursery ca 450–500/m2, often mulched with sawdust. Of slow initial growth, the stock is usually outplanted as 2- to 3-year-old seedlings or 3- to 4-year-old transplants (Ag. Handbook 450, 1974).
“Turpentine” is usually collected July-August by breaking the turpentine blisters into small metal cans with sharp-pointed lids. Trees are then allowed to recuperate 1–2 years. For the leaf oil, it would appear that branches should be snipped off younger trees in early spring (January-March).
Fifteen year old trees yield 70% more leaf oil than 110-year-old trees; oil yields are highest in January–March and September, lowest from April to August. Around 1800, one author reported averaging nearly a ton of balsam at “6 pence a lb.” (Erichsen-Brown, 1979).
According to the phytomass files (Duke, 1981b), annual productivity ranges from 9 to 13 MT/ha, standing biomass from 77–200 MT/ha. Gaertner cites references dealing with the potential use of bark for fuel, as charcoal or briquets.
The following are listed as affecting Abies balsamea: Acanthostigma parasiticum, Adelopus nudus, Aleurodiscus abietis, A. amorphus, Armillaria mellea, Ascocalyx abietis, Bifusella faulii, B. linearis, Cenangium ferruginosum, Cephalosporium sp., Coniophora puteana, Corticium galactinum, Coryne sarcoides, Cryptosporium macrospermum, Cyptospora pinastri, Dasyscypha agassizii, D. arida, D. calyciformis, D. calycina, D. resinaria, Dermea balsamea, Dimerosporium balsamicola, Echinodontium tinctorium, Flammula alnicola, Fomes pini, F. pinicola, F. robustus, F. roseus, F. subroseus, Fusicoccum abietinum, Gloeosporium balsameae, Herpotrichia nigra, Hyalopsora aspidiotus, Hydnum balsameum, Hymenochaete tabacina, H. mirabilis, H. nervata, H. punctata, Lenzites saepiaria, Leucostoma kunzei, Limacina alaskensis, Lophodermium autumnale, L. lacerum, L. piceae, Melampsora abieti-capraearum, M. epitea, Melampsorella caryophyllacearum, M. cerastii, Merulius himantoides, Micropera abietis, Milesina fructuosa, M. laeviuscula, M. marginalis, M. polypodophila, M. pycnograndis, M. vogesiaca, Nectria cucurbitula, Nothophacidium abietinellum, Odontia bicolor, Ophionectria scolecospora, Peniophora gigantea, Peridermium balsameum, Phacidium abietinellum, P. abietis, P. balsameae, P. infestans, Phaeocryptopus nudus, Phaeophacidium abietinum, Polyporus abietinus, P. anceps, P. balsameus, P. circinatus, P. fragilis, P. guttulatus, P. hirtus, P. mollis, P. resinosus, P. schweinitzii, P. tomentosus, Poria sericeo-mollis, P. subacida, P. vaporaria, Potebniamyces balsamicola, Pucciniastrum epilobii, P. goeppertianum, P. pustulatum, Rehmiel-lopsis abietis, R. balsamea, Rhizosphaera pini, Rhizothyrium abietis, Sarcotrochila balsamea, Scoleconectria cucurbitula, Sphaeropsis abietis, Stereum chailletii, S. pini, S. sanguinolentum, Thyronectria balsamea, Trametes heteromorpha, Trichoscyphella resinaria, Tympanis pinastri, Uredinopsis ceratophora, U. longimucronata, U. mirabilis, U. osmundae, U. phegopteris, U. struthiopteridis, Valsa abietis, V. pini(Ag. Handbook 165, 1960; Browne, 1968). Also listed in Browne (1968) are the following: Angiospermae: Viscum album; Acarina: Trisetacus grosmanni; Coleoptera:Dryocoetes confusus, Hylobius pales, H. pinicola, H. warreni, Melanophila drummondi, Monochamus scutellatus, Pityokteines sparsus, Pityophthorus cariniceps, P. granulatus, P. puberulus, Polygraphus rufipennis; Diptera: Dasyneura balsamicola; Hemiptera: Adelges piceae, Aphrophora parallela, Cinara curvipes, Mindarus abietinus, Prociphilus bumeliae; Hymenoptera: Camponotus spp., Gilpinia hercyniae, Megastigmus specularis, Neodiprion abietis, Pleroneura borealis, Urocerus albicornis, Xeris spectrum; Lepidoptera: Acleris variana, Choristoneura fumiferana, Cladaria limitaria, Dasychira plagiata, Dioryctria abietivorella, Hemerocampa leucostigma, Lambdina fiscellaria, Lymantria dispar, Melanolophia imitata, Orgyia antiqua, Protoboarmia porcelaria, Semiothisa granitata, Zeiraphera canadensis; Aves: Loxia curvirostra, L. leucoptera; and Mammalia: Alces alces, Erethizon dorsatum, Euarctos americanus, Odocoileus virginianus, Peromyscus sp., Tamiasciurus hudsonicus. Seed production may be reduced by squirrels and birds. Abies cones are preferred source of food for squirrels in some localities. Large quantities of cones are cut and cached; such cutting may also reduce future cone crops. Cone and seed insects may significantly reduce seed yields and occasionally totally destroy seed crops. Seed chalcids (Megastigmus spp.) are most common and may be abundant enough to have a major impact. For example, Megastigmus pinus typically infest 8-10% of A. concolor seed and have destroyed as much as 60% of a crop. Cone moths (e.g., Barbara colfaxiana siskiyouana and Dioryctria abietivorlla) and cone maggots (Earomyia spp.) cause the most conspicuous damage; all seeds are lost in heavily infested cones. Cone and scale midges cause no significant loss, but seed or gall midges may reduce seed yields by fusing seeds to cone scales (Ag. Handbook 450, 1974). Nematodes reported include Criconemella (Criconemoides) lobata, Paratylenchus sp., Rotylenchus sp., Tylenchorhynchus maximus and Xiphinema americana (Golden, p.c. 1984).
- Agriculture Handbook 165. 1960. Index of plant diseases in the United States. USGPO. Washington.
- Agriculture Handbook 450. 1974. Seeds of woody plants in the United States. Forest Service, USDA. USGPO. Washington.
- Anderson, A.B. 1955. Recovery and utilization of tree extractives. Econ. Bot. 9(2):108-140.
- Brown, R.C. and Brown, M.L. 1972. Woody plants of Maryland. Port City Press, Baltimore.
- Browne, F.G. 1968. Pests and diseases of forest plantations trees. Clarendon Press, Oxford.
- Duke, J.A. 1981b. The gene revolution. Paper 1. p. 89-150. In: Office of Technology Assessment, Background papers for innovative biological technologies for lesser developed countries. USGPO. Washington.
- Duke, J.A. 1983c. Amerindian medicinal plants. Typescript.
- Duke, J.A. and Wain, K.K. 1981. Medicinal plants of the world. Computer index with more than 85,000 entries. 3 vols.
- Erichsen-Brown, C. 1979. Use of plants for the past 500 years. Breezy Creeks Press. Aurora, Canada.
- Fernald, M.L., Kinsey, A.C., and Rollins, R.C. 1958. Edible wild plants of eastern North America. Rev. Ed. Harper & Bros., New York.
- Gaertner, E.E. 1970. Breadstuff from fir (Abies balsamea). Econ. Bot. 24(1):69-72.
- Guenther, E. 1948-1952. The essential oils. 6 vols. D. van Nostrand Co., Inc. Toronto, New York, London.
- Hartwell, J.L. 1967-1971. Plants used against cancer. A survey. Lloydia 30-34.
- List, P.H. and Horhammer, L. 1969-1979. Hager’s handbuch der pharmazeutischen praxis. vols 2-6. Springer-Verlag, Berlin.
Last update November 10, 1997
Muskdana or Ambrette
Muskdana or Ambrette (Abelmoschus moschatus): Aromatic and Medicinal
Copyright © 2001. All Rights Reserved. Quotation from this document should cite and acknowledge the contributor.
Abelmoschus moschatus (L.) Medic, Malvaceae (Syn. Hibiscus abelmoschus L.) is a tropical weedy shrub native to India valued for its scented seed. Ambrette is a close relative to Okra, a popular horticultural crop. The genus Abelmoschus has six species distributed in the South and South East Asia and in North Australia. Abelmoschus moschatus Medic., A. manihot (L.) Medic., and A. esculentus (L.) Moench, contain wild and cultivated forms, and A. ficulneus, A. crinitus, and A. angulosus, are only wild.Abelmoschus manihot, A. moschatus and A. esculentus are compared in Table 1. In Hindi, it is popularly known as mushkdana, kasturi bhendi (kasturi = musk; bhendi = lady’s finger). In other Indian languages it is known as gukhia korai (Assamese), kasturi bhenda (Telgu), kattukasturi (Malylam), varttilai kasturi (Tamil), lalkasturika(Sanskrit) (Krishnamurty 1993). The area under ambrette is presently low in India but is increasing rapidly (Oudhia and Tripathi 2000) with seed exports to France, Germany, Japan, Singapore, Spain for its use as an aromatic oil. Indian drug manufacturers are introducing new herbal drugs containing ambrette for medicinal use.
Table 1. Comparison of A. esculentus, A. manihot and A. moschatus.
|English name||Okra, Gumbo||Manihot-mallow||Musk-mallow|
|Place of origin||Old world tropics||East Asia||India|
|Life cycle||Annual||Annual or perennial||Annual or biennial|
|Leaves||Large often 12 inch or more across; cordate-ovate.||Leaves large ovate to nearly orbicular in outline 6-12 inch or more. Manihot probably suggests the resemblance of leaves to those of cassava or manihot||With variously 3-9 lobed or divided. Margins coarsely toothed|
|Floral characteristics||Calyx large and spathe-like; bracts of involucre linear; pod 4-5 inch or more long.||Calyx large and spathe-like; bracts ovate to oblong.||Calyx large and spathe-like; Bracts of involucre linear; pod 3 inch or less long.|
|Flower colour||Yellow with a reddish center||Yellow or whitish with a dark brown center.||Yellow with a crimson center.|
Erect hispid herbs or undershrubs, 0.5-2.5 meters high, with a long slender tap root. Leave extremely variable, lower suborbicular in outline, cordate, lower or palmately 3-7 lobed, upper narrower, hastate or sagittate at the base with linear-oblong or triangular lobes. Flowers regular, bisexual, involucral bracts 8-12, hairy yellow with purple centre. Fruits capsule fulvous hairy, oblong lanceolate, acute. Seeds subreniform and blackish (Verma et al. 1993; Agharkar 1991; Lindley 1985).
Ambrette oil obtained from seeds possess an odor similar to that of musk and its aromatic constitents have long been used in perfumery industry. Different grades of essential, or aromatic absolute, are marked in Europe as high-grade perfumes (Singh et al. 1996 ) The seeds are valued for the volatile oil present in the seed coat. Seed analysis report 11.1% moisture, 31.5% crude fiber; 14.5% lipids, 13.4% starch, 2.3% protein, volatile oil (0.2-0.6% ) and ca/ 5% resin (Srivastava 1995).
Analysis of volatiles report myricetin-3-glucoside and a glycoside of cyanidin in flowers, an aromatic constituent in seeds, beta-sitosteral and its beta-D-glucoside, myricetin and its glucoside in leaves and petals and beta-sitosterol from dry fruit husk (Rastogi and Mehrotra 1991a,b).
In India, roots, leaves (rarely), and seeds of ambrette are considered valuable traditional medicines. The bitter, sweet, acrid, aromatic seeds are used as a tonic and are considered “cooling, aphrodisiac, opthalmic, cardiotonic, digestive, stomachic, constipating, carminative, pectoral, diuretic, stimulant, antispasmodic, deodorant, and effective against “kapha” and “vata,” intestinal complaints, stomatitis; and diseases of the heart, allays thirst and checks vomiting. According to Unani system of medicine seeds allay thirst, cure stomatitis, dyspepsia, urinary discharge, gonorrhea, leucoderma and itch. Roots and leaves are cures for gonorrhea (Agharkar 1991). Even use against venomous reptiles has been reported (Lindley 1985).
Ambrette is cultivated as pre-kharif crop in India. It is usually sown in March–April but as late as the first week of July in Central India (Oudhia 2001a). Seed rates of 41g/kg are optimum (Oudhia 2000b). Application of dried Neem leaves (500Kg/ha) at last ploughing increased oil content and quality. April sown crop start flowering in September; fruits ripen from November to January and are harvested when fully mature. Applications of fertilizers improves growth of plant and seed yields (Krishnamurty 1993) but studies conducted by SOPAM indicate the use of chemical inputs resulted in negative impact on oil content and quality. Harvested capsules are sun dried and seeds dehisce when the capsules burst. The oil for perfumery is extracted by steam distillation of crushed seeds.
Experiences and interactions with herb growers and exporters associated with medicinal and aromatic herb Kasturibhendi
(Abelmoschus moschatus) http://botanical.com/site/column_poudhia/33_kasturibhendi.html
Allelopathic effects of selected leaf extracts on germination and seedling vigor of medicinal crop Kasturibhendi (Abelmoschus
moschatus medic) http://botanical.com/site/column_poudhia/37_selected_leaf_extracts.html
Agharkar, S.P. 1991. Medicinal plants of Bombay presidency. Scientific Publ. Jodhpur, India. First reprint p. 1-2
Krishanamurty, T. 1993. Minor forest products of India. Oxford and IBH Publishing Co. Pvt. Ltd. New Delhi.
Lindley, J. 1985. Flora medica.. Ajay Book Service, New Delhi.
Oudhia, P. 2001a. My experiences with world’s top ten Indian medicinal plants: Glimpses of research at farmer’s field in Chhattisgarh (India). In: Abstract. Workshop cum Seminar on Sustainable Agriculture for 21st Century, IGAU, Raipur, India, 20-21 Jan.
Oudhia, P. and R.S. Tripathi. 2001. The possibilities of commercial cultivation of rare medicinal plant’s in Chhattisgarh (India) In : Abstract. VII National Science Conference, Directorate of Cropping System Research, Meerut, India, 12-14 April .
Rastogi, R.P. and B.N. Mehrotra. 1991a. Compendium of Indian Medicinal Plants. Vol. I (1960-1969). Central Drug Research Institute, Lucknow and Publications and Information Directorate, New Delhi.
Rastogi, R.P. and B.N. Mehrotra. 1991. Compendium of Indian Medicinal Plants. Vol. II. (1970-1979). Central Drug Research Institute, Luckhnow and Publ. and Information Directorate, New Delhi.
Singh, U., A.M. Wadhwani, and B.M. Johri. 1996. Dictionary of economic plants in India. Indian Council of Agricultural Research, New Delhi.
Srivastava, U.C. 1995. Ambrette seed. p. 887-897. In: K.L. Chadha and Rajendra Gupta (eds.), Advances in Horticulture Vol. 11-Medicinal and Aromatic Plants (1995). Malhotra Publ. House, New Delhi.
Verma, D.M., R.R. Balakrishnan, and R.D. Dixit. 1993. Flora of Madhya Pradesh. Botanical Survey f India, Lucknow, India p. 90–191.
Warrier, P.K., V.P.K. Nambiar, and C. Ramankutty. 1996. Indian medicinal plants. Orient Longman, Chennai, India p. 4-6.
Last updated: 12/8/2010 by aw
Abelmoschus esculentus – Okra
ผ่านทางAbelmoschus esculentus – Okra.
Abelmoschus esculentus (syn. Hibiscus esculentus)
Bamia, Bendi, Bhindee, Bhindi, Bindi, Cantarela, Gombaut, Gombo, Bumbo, Lady-finger, Mesta, Ochro, Okra, Okro, Quiabo, Quimbambo, Quingombo, Rosenapfel, Vendakai
NewCROP has Okra information from:
Last updated: 12/8/110 by ch
Morton, J. 1987. Abiu. p. 406–408. In: Fruits of warm climates. Julia F. Morton, Miami, FL.
Pouteria caimito Radlk.
Lucuma caimito Roem. & Schult.
Achras caimito Ruiz & Pavón
- Origin and Distribution
- Propagation and Culture
- Pests and Diseases
- Food Uses
- Other Uses
A minor member of the Sapotaceae, the abiu, Pouteria caimito Radlk. (syns. Lucuma caimito Roem. & Schult.; Achras caimito Ruiz & Pavón), has acquired few vernacular names. In Colombia, it is called caimito, caimito amarilla, caimo or madura verde; in Ecuador, luma or cauje; in Venezuela, temare; in Brazil, abiu, abi, abio, abieiro orcaimito. It is called yellow star apple in Trinidad.
|Plate LVII: ABIU, Pouteria caimito|
The tree has a pyramidal or rounded crown; is generally about 33 ft (10 m) high but may reach 115 ft (35 m) in favorable situations. A gummy latex, white or reddish, exudes from wounds in the bark. The leaves are alternate and highly variable; may be ovate-oblong, obovate or elliptic; 4 to 8 in (10-20 cm) long, 1 1/4 to 2 3/8 in (3-6 cm) wide; short-pointed at the apex, sometimes long-tapering at the base; smooth or with a few scattered hairs. The flowers, borne singly or in groups of 2 to 5 in the leaf axils, are cylindrical, 4- to 5-lobed, white or greenish; 1/6 to 1/3 in (4-8 mm) long. The fruit, downy when young, is ovoid, elliptical or round; 1 1/2 to 4 in (4-10 cm) long, sometimes having a short nipple at the apex; with smooth, tough, pale-yellow skin when ripe and fragrant, white, mucilaginous, translucent, mild-flavored, sweet or insipid pulp containing 1 to 4 oblong seeds, brown, with a pale hilum on one side. Until fully ripe, the fruit is permeated with latex and is very gummy and astringent.
|Fig. 109: The pale-yellow abiu (Poutertai caimito) as sold in the native market of Buenaventura, Colombia. The fruit is gummy with latex until it becomes fully ripe.|
The abiu is a denizen of the headwaters of the Amazon. It grows wild on the lower eastern slopes of the Andes from southwestern Venezuela to Peru. It is often cultivated around Iquitos, Peru. In Ecuador, it is common in the Province of Guayas and the fruits are sold in the markets of Guayaquil. It is much grown around Pará, Brazil; less frequently near Rio de Janeiro, and to a limited extent at Bahia. In Colombia, it is fairly common in the regions of Caquetá, Meta and Vaupés and it abounds in the adjacent areas of Amazonas, Venezuela. It has been growing for many years in Trinidad.
The plant explorers, Dorsett, Shamel and Popenoe, collected seeds for the United States Department of Agriculture in Bahia in 1914 (S.P.I. #37929). In 1915, seeds were received from Lavoras, Minas, Brazil (S.P.I. #41003). This species has been planted several times at the Agricultural Research and Education Center, Homestead, Florida, but most of the young plants have been killed by winter cold. A few trees planted in 1953 fruited in 1962.
There is much variation in the form, size and quality of the fruits of seedling trees, some having firm flesh, some soft; and some are insipid, while others have agreeable flavor. At Puerto Ospina, along the Putamayo River in Colombia, there is a type that fruits in 4 years. The fruit is round and large. Near the River Inirida, in Vaupés, Colombia, there is a type that bears in one year from seed, but the fruits are small with little pulp.
The abiu is strictly tropical or near-tropical. It thrives best in a year-around warm and moist climate, yet Popenoe noted that it does well in somewhat cooler Rio de Janeiro. In Peru it has not been found above 2,000 ft (650 m), though in Colombia, it can be grown up to an elevation of 6,000 ft (1,900 m).
The tree is naturally suited to fertile, wet soil. It is subject to chlorosis in the limestone of southern Florida.
The fruits are in season in March and April in Ecuador. They are sold in some Brazilian markets from September to April but only a few are seen in the much shorter season of February and March at Bahia. Fruits have matured in October in Florida. The abiu can be picked while underripe and firm for transport to markets.
In Brazil, the washed seeds are dried in the shade and then planted, 3 together and 2 in (5 cm) deep in enriched soil. They will germinate in 15 to 20 days. When the seedlings are 4 in (10 cm) high, the 2 weakest are removed. The strong one is set out when 12 to 16 in (30-40 cm) high. Spacing is 17 x 20 ft (6 x 5 m). One year later, the lower branches are pruned. Fruiting will begin in 3 years; will be substantial in 5 years.
Actually, the fruit has little value commercially because it is commonly damaged by small insects (bichos in Spanish and Portuguese). In Brazil, the chief pests are said to be fruit flies.
In Colombia, people who wish to eat the abiu. are advised to grease their lips beforehand to keep the gummy latex from clinging to them. It is mostly eaten out-of-hand but, in Pará, some types are used to make ices and ice cream.
|Food Value Per 100 g of Edible Portion*|
|Vitamin B,||0.2 mg|
|Vitamin B2||0.2 mg|
|Ascorbic Acid||49.0 mg|
|Amino Acids (mg per g of nitrogen [N 6.25])|
*According to analyses made in Brazil.
Wood: The wood is dense and heavy, hard, and valued for construction.
Medicinal Uses: In Brazil, the pulp, because of its mucilaginous nature, is eaten to relieve coughs, bronchitis and other pulmonary complaints. The latex is given as a vermifuge and purge and is applied on abscesses.
Last updated: 12/8/110 by ch
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